High-performance computing (HPC) is one of the key enabling technologies having wider and longer-term effects on science and society. Forecasting climate evolution, space observation, preventing and managing large-scale natural disasters, developing, and understanding chemistry and physics of new materials, designing new personalized drugs, all require top HPC resources. Traditionally, HPC has given scientists deep insights into unexplored phenomena and systems of the highest complexity. However, HPC usage today is not confined to science only: industry, and even society at large is based on the ever-growing use of complex ICT solutions and resources. HPC, as one key element, can significantly reduce R&D costs and development cycles while producing higher quality products and services. Also, from a business perspective, investments in HPC provide high returns. Last, but not least, HPC is also crucial for national security and defense. It enables an increase of safety and security, by providing means to e.g. enable strong encryption technologies, simulate complex security threats, perform large-scale suspicious pattern detection in social networks.

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